1. Labelling involves attaching a meaning or definition to someone e.g. ‘thick’. The self-fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that comes true simply by virtue of it having been made e.g. the pupil labeled ‘thick’ internalizes the label and underachieves.
  2. Labelling theory is deterministic and wrongly assumes that once labeled, pupils have no choice but to fulfil the prophecy and fail. It ignores the wider structures of power within which labelling takes place.
  3. Such as pupils who: tend to be in high streams; are committed to education; share school’s values.
  4. As a response to being put in a low stream; as a means of obtaining status among those labeled as failures.
  5. The process of introducing market forces into education.
  6. The Education Reform Act; the Parents’ Charter.
  7. Borderline pupils who are targeted for extra help.