1. Target-hardening refers to security measures such as locks, alarms etc, designed to make crime more difficult. Displacement refers to the way in which target hardening may result in crime being deflected onto different targets/victims.
  2. They ignore white-collar and corporate crime. Many criminals act under the influence of drugs or alcohol, so do not make rational decisions. They ignore underlying causes of crime such as poverty or poor socialisation.
  3. The police must be proactive in dealing with the smallest signs of disorder, so that more serious crime will not develop.
  4. Retributive justice involves revenge by society and harsh punishment; restitutive justice attempts to restore things to the way they were before the crime, e.g. through paying compensation.
  5. Because imprisonment reflects the capitalist mode of production, e.g. paying for one’s crime by ‘doing time’ in a society where ‘time is money’; prison reflects the strict discipline of capitalist factory production.
  6. Control via surveillance which is internalised by the individual and becomes self-surveillance.
  7. The way in which a person may move from one institution to another during their lifetime, such as children’s care home, prison and mental institution.
  8. It ignores structural factors such as patriarchy; it often seems to blame the victim; it does not account for situations where the victims are not aware of the crimes committed against them; it ignores harms done to victims which are not against the law.