ObservationPunch (1994) suggests that ethical concerns can be summarised under four headings: harm; consent; deception; privacy and confidentiality of data.

  1. Explain what each of these means in the context of studying crime and deviance.
  2. Consider each of the following studies, all referred to in this section, and discuss which, if any, of the four ethical concerns might apply in each case:

a) Hobbs’ chats in the pub with members of the police force.
b) Humphreys acting as a ‘watchqueen’.
c) Patrick leaving suddenly and then writing his book about the gang.
d) Punch behaving like a policeman.
e) Holdaway observing as a member of the police force.