1. Chinese; Indian; Whites; Bangladeshis; blacks
  2. Cultural deprivation theory ignores the positive effects of ethnicity on achievement e.g. black girls. Black pupils underachieve because of racism, not cultural deprivation. Black pupils are different not culturally deprived, but schools are ethnocentric.
  3. Sociologists include Gillborn, Bourne, Foster, Fuller and Sewell.
  4. By accepting the label and fulfilling the prophecy; by ignoring it; by seeking to disprove it e.g. by working harder.
  5. A curriculum that gives priority to one culture and ignores others e.g. teaching only European languages, not Asian ones.
  6. More scope for selection of pupils; more scope for negative stereotypes to influence admissions; use of language as a selection mechanism