1. (b) 7 times.
  2. Black males are less likely than other ethnic groups to report offences already known to the police; self-report studies do not usually ask about more serious offences; self-report studies do not include prisoners, among whom blacks are over-represented. All these factors affect the representativeness of the results.
  3. (a) Utilitarian crime is produced in delinquent subcultures suffering from relative deprivation; (b) non-utilitarian crime is produced by frustration due to marginalisation.
  4. It is a form of political resistance to a racist capitalist society.
  5. First-generation immigrants tended to be law-abiding; most crime is intra-ethnic (within the same ethnic group); the level of Asian crime is lower than or similar to that of whites.
  6. At a time of crisis in capitalism, the focus on mugging served to distract attention, to divide the working class on racial grounds and to provide the opportunity to impose stricter laws.
  7. Discrimination on racial grounds that is built into the pervading values of an organisation such as the police, businesses or housing authorities.
  8. Higher rates of poverty and unemployment; higher proportion of young males.