1. Boundary maintenance – reinforcing norms and values for the majority; adaptation – facilitating social change; safety-valve, warning of a societal malfunction.
  2. The feeling created when individuals find their access to legitimate means of achieving status is blocked+-.
  3. Ritualists have lost sight of society’s goals, but still follow the legitimate means or rules; retreatists have rejected both society’s goals and the legitimate means to achieve them.
  4. It assumes that all those who experience a strain to anomie will deviate, but many who experience strain do not deviate.
  5. Crime that has no economic motive, such as vandalism.
  6. Because some people are not effectively socialised and because in complex societies there are subcultural differences in norms and values.
  7. Goals are the things we are expected to want and strive for, such as success, money, fast cars; means are the ways in which a person may obtain or achieve these goals.
  8. Because not everyone who fails in mainstream society has equal access to an illegitimate opportunity structure; e.g. some areas have an organised professional criminal structure but others do not.
  9. The emphasis on money and economic success; the lack of a supportive welfare system; the lack of clear norms about how wealth should be pursued legitimately.