1. Fixed by birth
  2. Geographical mobility is movement between different places; Social mobility is movement between different social positions (e.g. from farm labourer to doctor)
  3. Because of social changes ( e.g. geographical mobility, higher living standards, more married women working, the welfare state, better housing, labour saving technology in the home).
  4. Because conditions were harsh, there was no welfare state and the extended family provided mutual aid.
  5. A set of beliefs supporting male domination
  6. By socializing children as ‘docile’ workers
  7. Marxist feminists see the main cause of women’s oppression as capitalism. Radical feminists see men as the source of women’s oppression
  8. Such as: the Sex Discrimination Act. Equal Pay Act; improved access to higher education; a larger number of female MPs