In pairs, discuss the elements of cosmopolitanism suggested by Giddens, summarised in the table below.
Suggest examples from modern Britain to illustrate all of the points listed in the table. Then compare your examples with those produced by your fellow students.
|A term describing people or societies which are tolerant of the views of others as a result of constant exposure to new ideas and values.||A term describing people or groups that defend tradition believe in the literal truth of scripture and insist on faith-based answers.|
|Reflexivity – people make conscious choices about who they are and want to be, monitoring life to better it. Life is freed from the hold of tradition and instead is chosen.
Pursuit of personal meaning.
|Tradition and dogmatism: traditional authority goes largely unquestioned and is compulsory (lifestyle is set down).
Submission to authority.
|People are in contact with others who think differently from them. They are required to justify their beliefs to themselves and others by referring to rational arguments and evidence.||People tend to avoid contact with others who think differently from them. They justify their beliefs with dogma not rational arguments and evidence.|
|Thought is open-minded and reflective, leading to tolerance and dialogue.||Thought is determined by the power of tradition, leading to intolerance and a refusal to engage in dialogue.|
|Reliance on experts.||Reliance on guardians of tradition such as clergy.|
Source: Adapted from Giddens, 1999.