1. 80% or four-fifths.
  2. Women are more likely than men to be cautioned rather than prosecuted; less likely to be sent to jail; less likely to be arrested.
  3. Girls are more likely to be put into care because of sexual activity; women can be punished more harshly if they do not fit the stereotypical gender role; women victims in rape trials are likely to be blamed.
  4. It assumes that women are socialised into an expressive role and expected to be gentle and nurturing – qualities not usually associated with criminality – and that men are prepared for an instrumental role and expected to be tough and sometimes aggressive – qualities that may lead to trouble with the law.
  5. They may lack a satisfactory relationship and family situation, and may lack a legitimate means of earning a decent living (e.g. through lack of educational opportunity).
  6. The rise in the female crime rate precedes the women’s liberation movement; ‘liberated’ middle-class women are less likely to be criminal, not more; women still do not often have access to a criminal opportunity structure.
  7. Accommodating masculinity.
  8. He over-uses it, attempting to make it explain many widely different types of crime.