1. Where scientists set out to prove a statement wrong.
  2. Communism; universalism; disinterestedness; organised scepticism – all are norms to which scientists must adhere when pursuing scientific knowledge.
  3. It cannot be overturned by evidence because the believers accept basic assumptions that cannot be challenged.
  4. Because scientists reacted to his new theory by immediate rejection, rather than testing it via scientific means.
  5. Ideological thought justifies the status quo; utopian thought justifies social change.
  6. Ways of thinking (of the oppressed) that are the product of ideology (of the ruling class).
  7. Because they would not be attached to any particular interest group and therefore could represent the interests of society as a whole.
  8. Ruling-class ideology and consciousness arising from exploitation and struggle.