1. Deviance is what is seen and defined as such by others; it is not the act itself that is deviant.
  2. False. Secondary deviance is the result of societal reaction.
  3. The police, the courts, schools, religious groups, families, the media, peer groups.
  4. Once a person is labelled, this label becomes a part of his/her self-concept and +s/he is more likely to turn to deviance again.
  5. When a person lives up to their deviant label.
  6. It fails to explain where labels come from and who makes the rules in the first place.
  7. The belief that individuals have no free will or choice in how they behave but instead is determined by forces outside their control. Labelling theory implies that, once someone is labelled, a self-fulfilling prophecy and deviant career are inevitable.