1. A ‘class in itself’ is where a group (e.g. workers) share the same economic position; a ‘class for itself’ is where they recognise their shared interests as a class, i.e. they become class conscious.
  2. Both are macro theories focusing on the structure of society; both see society shaping individuals; both arose as a response to growing industrial society.
  3. The economic base.
  4. The separation of workers from the ownership of the means of production and control of the work process and what they produce.
  5. The expanding proletariat; disappearance of the middle class; immiseration; inevitability of revolution by industrial workers.
  6. ‘Determinism’ means that structural factors determine individuals’ actions; ‘voluntarism’ means that individuals have free will to make their own decisions and choose their course of action.
  7. Through the domination of ideas and values, via ruling-class control of institutions such as education, the media, religion and the law.
  8. The organisations that use force or the threat of it maintain the rule of the bourgeoisie, such as the armed forces, the police, the courts, prisons, the secret service.
  9. Slaves, serfs, wage labourers.
  10. A classless, stateless society in which the means of production are communally owned and where exploitation and alienation have disappeared.