1. The main focus is on crime reduction through control, containment and punishment, rather than on tackling the causes of crime.
  2. The police should deal with even the smallest signs of disorder, so that more serious crime will not develop.
  3. Low intelligence; personality traits such as extroversion and aggression; lack of impulse control.
  4. The availability of goods and the way they are advertised through the media makes people more aware of massive differences in wealth, and raises expectations for all.
  5. The way in which some individuals are pushed to the edge of mainstream society and have no political or economic voice.
  6. How deprived someone feels compared to others, or compared to their expectations.
  7. Reducing economic inequality and insecurity; involving the public in policing policy (democratic or consensus policing); developing a multi-agency approach, using local organisations; ceasing military policing that alienates the community.
  8. Both deal with crime as a real problem; both take fear of crime into account; both consider the victims.