1. The Hindu belief that India is superior to other nations because of its Hindu values.
  2. Strict literal adherence to scripture; tradition; compulsory, unquestioning lifestyle.
  3. Religion spread by colonial conquest; evangelical and fundamentalist religion driven by mass following.
  4. Abortion; gay marriage; gender equality; secular education.
  5. Resistant identity is the response of those who retreat defensively into fundamentalism; project identity is the response of those who become involved with forward-looking social movements.
  6. Because of increased contact through globalisation, and the increasing importance of religious identity, following the decline of political differences.
  7. Hostility is based on political issues rather than religion; it does not take account of divisions within ‘civilisations’; the theory itself promoted hostility and stereotyping.
  8. Values concerning self-expression, such as diversity and gender equality.