1. Having religious beliefs but not attending a church.
  2. Experiencing religion ‘second hand’ or at a distance. Attending church for rites of passage, but not on a regular basis.
  3. ‘Pilgrims’ focus on their own individual spirituality and development; ‘converts’ join religious groups for a sense of community and belonging.
  4. Religion provides us with supernatural compensation for things we cannot achieve in this life.
  5. There has never been a religious monopoly in America; America has a vast array of religions on offer; there is religious competition on television; religious groups are often very wealthy; religious adherence in America is more flexible – people change more often from one group to another; adherence to civil religion is required of politicians; American society is more unequal.
  6. It focuses on the decline of religion in Europe, and ignores other societies where religion still thrives.
  7. Diversity and supply do not necessarily increase the level of religiosity; some societies have high levels of religious participation despite a monopoly by one church; religious market theory misrepresents the idea of a religious ‘golden age’ in the past.
  8. The feeling that survival is secure and therefore there is less need for religion to provide reassurance.