- Those whom God had chosen to be saved were ‘predestined’ – even chosen in advance of birth.
- Living a disciplined, simple, hard-working life in this world (as opposed to other-worldly asceticism in a monastery).
- Because they could not know if they were chosen to be saved.
- The orientation of Hindu asceticism was other-worldly, rather than this-worldly.
- The way in which the ruling class are able to maintain control over society by ideological means, including religion.
- They provided moral legitimacy; meeting places; a source of unity; an organisation for campaigning.
- Helping the poor; fighting oppression; promoting change in society.
- Predicting the end of the world as it is now; the overthrow of oppressors; a ‘golden age’ to come; pre-political movements.
- Because religion often preaches liberation, as well as supporting the status quo.