1. Those whom God had chosen to be saved were ‘predestined’ – even chosen in advance of birth.
  2. Living a disciplined, simple, hard-working life in this world (as opposed to other-worldly asceticism in a monastery).
  3. Because they could not know if they were chosen to be saved.
  4. The orientation of Hindu asceticism was other-worldly, rather than this-worldly.
  5. The way in which the ruling class are able to maintain control over society by ideological means, including religion.
  6. They provided moral legitimacy; meeting places; a source of unity; an organisation for campaigning.
  7. Helping the poor; fighting oppression; promoting change in society.
  8. Predicting the end of the world as it is now; the overthrow of oppressors; a ‘golden age’ to come; pre-political movements.
  9. Because religion often preaches liberation, as well as supporting the status quo.