- Repressive: police; courts; army. Ideological: education; mass media; religion.
- Reproduction: transmitting inequality from generation to generation e.g. by failing working-class pupils in each generation. Legitimation: justifying inequality as fair and natural e.g. the myth of meritocracy.
- Similarities or parallels between schools and workplace e.g. hierarchy of bosses and workers
- It justifies inequality as fair and natural.
- A production system based on flexible specialization; using advanced technology and adaptable, skilled workers where production is customized to niche markets.
- It argues that reproduction of non-class inequalities is important.