Read the section on historical differences in childhood and reasons for change, from page 30 to page 34. Then answer the following:
1. Ariès argues that ‘childhood did not exist’ in the Middle Ages.. Using the factors listed below, write a summary explaining why Aries believes this was so.
- High infant mortality rates
- Low expectation of life
- Large families
- Children had little or no education
- Children started work at about the age of six
- Most adults were young and often had childlike qualities
- Children often went to work away from home.
2. Now explain why our attitudes towards childhood have changed in the last century, using the following points:
- Fall in infant mortality and family size
- The growth of education for all
- The work of social reformers
- The growth of child welfare
- The rise in average family income
- The growth of laws preventing child labour and child abuse
- The growth of a market for children’s goods.