pdf-childhoodRead the section on historical differences in childhood and reasons for change, from page 30 to page 34. Then answer the following:

1. Ariès argues that ‘childhood did not exist’ in the Middle Ages.. Using the factors listed below, write a summary explaining why Aries believes this was so.

  • High infant mortality rates
  • Low expectation of life
  • Large families
  • Children had little or no education
  • Children started work at about the age of six
  • Most adults were young and often had childlike qualities
  • Children often went to work away from home.

2. Now explain why our attitudes towards childhood have changed in the last century, using the following points:

  • Fall in infant mortality and family size
  • The growth of education for all
  • The work of social reformers
  • The growth of child welfare
  • The rise in average family income
  • The growth of laws preventing child labour and child abuse
  • The growth of a market for children’s goods.