1. A social problem is a situation or behaviour that members of society see as being in need of remedial action; a sociological problem is any aspect of society or behaviour that needs explaining by sociologists.
  2. Ideology of the governing party; cost; globalisation; actions of interest/pressure groups; popularity with electors; media pressure.
  3. Comte; Durkheim; Marx.
  4. By providing ideological legitimation; maintaining the labour force; buying off unrest/preventing revolution.
  5. Those providing the funding may require certain areas or problems to be studied (or avoided). They may require data in a particular form (e.g. quantitative), affecting what methods are used. Researchers may tone down their findings and recommendations to fit their paymasters’ wishes.
  6. Educational learning materials; teacher training; equal pay; sex discrimination; laws on marital rape; maternity leave.